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AADHIK MAAS (अधिक मास)

The western calendar used by many countries worldwide is of 365 days, having 12 months from January to December; whereas Vedic calendar is of two types, based on movement of Sun and Moon.

Solar month

As we know, there ae 28 nakshatras that the Sun transits through. The time taken by the Sun to transit from Ashwini nakshatra to all 28 nakshatras and then again transit in Ashwini, is called one solar year. All 12 rashis cover 28 nakshatra. The Sun transits from one rashi/ sign to another in roughly 30 days. Thus, one solar year is of 360 days.

Lunar month

When Sun and Moon are in conjunction, it is called Amavasya or no moon day. Lunar month comprises the number of days between one Amavasya to another Amavasya. Lunar calendar runs from Chaitra to Phalgun.

Concept of adhik maas

In one Lunar month, the Sun typically transits from one rashi to another, only one time – e.g. if the Sun is in Aries, it moves to Taurus before the end of the lunar month. However, if the Lunar month ends without any transit by the Sun – i.e. from the above example, the Sun were to remain in Aries only for the entire month – then, there are two lunar months of the same name in that year. First one is called Adhik month and second month as a normal lunar month with the same name.

This phenomenon is happening in 2020 – On the 17th of September, there was an Amavasya. The Lunar month was Bhadrapada, and the Sun is in Virgo (transited on 16th of September). Effective the 18th of September 2020, the Lunar month Ashwin commenced, which ends on the 16th October 2020. However, during this period of Ashwin month, the Sun remains in Virgo and does not transit forward. The Sun transits in the next sign Libra on 17th of October 2020, i.e. after the next Lunar Month has begun. Hence, the first Lunar Month when Sun is in Virgo is known as “Adhik Maas”. The second period when Sun is in Libra is regular Lunar month of Ashwin.

Adhik months comes once in three years.

Adhik month is also called ‘Purushottam month’. Lord / Bhagwan Vishnu is the lord of Adhik month. As per Hindu shastra (science) It is believed that Adhik month is very auspicious for doing religious ceremonies like puja, abhishek, jaap and doing charity or donation.

In Bhagavad Geeta Lord Krishna has said:

"अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जना: पर्युपासते | तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् || "

Meaning: There are devotees, who always think of me and engage in exclusive devotion to me; I always look after the requirements, needs of such devotees and take care of them.

Lord Vishnu promises that- “I look after and take care of dedicated devotees.” Adhik month provides an opportunity for us to dedicate fully to devotion to Lord Vishnu, surrender to God and thus totally rejuvenate life.

Religious activities conducted in adhik month are:

  1. Abhishek and puja of lord Vishnu with chanting of Purush-sukta and chanting Vishnu sahastra nam while offering tulsi patra to the deity
  2. Performing puja or abhishek in any Vishnu temple like Jagannath temple, Tirupati temple, Dwarkadhish temple and so on.
  3. Yagya or anushthan devotd to the God Vishnu
  4. Chanting of Vishnu sahastranam every day
  5. Chanting of stotra devoted to the God Vishnu
  6. Chanting of mantra ‘Om namo bhagavate Vasudevay’ or any mantra of lord Vishnu
  7. Performing Satyanarayan Puja
  8. Fasting daily or having food only once in a day
  9. Lighting a lamp 7 x 24 hours in temple (or in temple at home)
  10. Charity or donation
  11. Reading Vishnu Puran, Bhagavatam
  12. All types of remedies for removal of defects in the horoscope, e.g. in current difficult period of corona pandemic, one can perform ‘Mahamrutunjay’ jap

It is virtuous to pray and perform all sort of religious activities in the sacred month of adhik month viz. Ashwin. One can transform oneself totally and cleanse of bad effects of bad deeds performed in the past.

"ॐ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय !"

Om namo bhagavate vaasudevay!

This Maha- Mantra has to be chanted during aadhik month. Though one can chant this special mantra as many times during a day, it is better to chant the mantra 108 times on tulasi rosary at least once in the morning. This mantra is Important mantra in ‘श्री मद भागवतम’ Also, the importance of the mantra has been narrated in ‘Vishnu Puranam’.

This mantra is called ‘Mukti’ (liberation) mantra and spiritual mantra for obtaining liberation from the cycle of birth & death. There is a story in purana about this mantra. In heaven, there was discussion on who is the supreme devotee of Lord Vishnu. Narada thought of himself to be the most dedicated devotee of Lord Vishnu. But he was surprised when the God revealed that Arjuna is the supreme devotee of Vishnu. So, he landed in the tent of Arjun. As it was night time, Arjun was sleeping. Narada did not want to wake him up. There was a lamp fluttering in the tent. Narada approached to make the lamp steady, when he heard some muttering. When he went near Arjun. He heard the jaap ‘Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevay ’ beaming softly from the hair of Arjun. Narada realized that Arjun was indeed the Supreme devotee, as he was chanting the mantra even during the sleep. So, the lord Krishna was protecting and guiding Arjuna all the times. Even he became his charioteer in the war at Kurukshetra. Morale of the story- Krishna (Vishnu) protects his great devotee all the time.

Bhakta Pralhad attained the God Vishnu after chanting this mahamantra with great devotion. There are 15 auspicious days in this Adhik Ashwin month in 2020.

  1. 18 September- Friday Uttaraphalhuni nakshatra and shukla yog
  2. Sarva Siddhi Yog- meaning giving success in all deeds – 26 September, 1,4,6,7,9,11 and 17 October
  3. Dvi-pushkar Yog- meaning one gets double benefit of the work done. 19 and 27 September
  4. Amrut Siddhi yog - The work done on this yog bestows good results for a long time. 2 October2020
  5. Pushya nakshatra- 10 October Ravi Pushya and 11 October Soma Pushya yog

Charity or donation that can be done on Shukla paksha of Adhik Ashwin month:

  • Mal pua
  • Kheer
  • Curds
  • Ghee
  • Sesame and Gur
  • Rice or wheat
  • Milk
  • Sugar and honey
  • Khichadi
  • Cotton or silk garment
  • Blanket
  • Copper or silver

Charity or donations that can be made in Krushna paksha of adhik Ashwin month

  • Diya or lamp that can be lighted with ghee
  • Gold or bronze
  • Chickpeas
  • Dried date
  • Gur and pigeon peas (tur daal/ arahar dal)
  • Deer musk and saffron
  • Incense stick
  • Bell
  • Pearl or diamond

What should one eat in Purushottam month?

Wheat, rice, moong beans, peas, sesame, barley, cucumber, ghee, banana, tamarind, ginger, rock salt. Diet consisting of these things helps in improving virtues and reducing pains.

What type of food is to be avoided?

Horse bean, Red lentil, raddish, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, non-vegetarian food, liquor

What are the prohibited activities during adhik months?

Wedding, Vaastu shaant, entry in new house, upanayana, installation of new idol of deity in temple